Southern states secede from the Union. Protests Republican Presidential election results. New nation formed. Abraham Lincoln’s response. Civil War effectively began on this day.
On the 12th of October, 1860, he [the governor] issued his proclamation convening the Legislature of South Carolina in extra session, "to appoint electors of President and Vice-President ... and also that they may, if advisable, take action for the safety and protection of the State." There was no external peril menacing either the commonwealth or its humblest citizen; but the significance of the phrase was soon apparent.
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